* glossary (new page ?) :
presentational vs. representational (theatre) : theatricality vs. realism : Meyerhold against Stanislavsky
2008 -- new : stagematrix.vtheatre.net: before 2009 : 2005 pages -- UAF Play fest * 2004 * Playscript Notes * biblio * Chekhov 5 * cover page * playwright * references *
"I'm not a teacher: only a fellow-traveller of whom you asked the way. I pointed ahead - ahead of myself as well as you." --George Bernard Shaw
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Use theatre theatre termonology
Spring 2002: Dangerous Liaisons & Realism & Method eGroup
HamletWeb 2002 script.vtheatre.net listing
Fall 2002 THR215 Dramatic Literature: Bedford Compact Intro to Drama
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DRAMA: A composition, in prose or poetry, accommodated to action, and intended to exhibit a picture of human life, or to depict a series of grave or humorous actions of more than ordinary interest, tending toward some striking result. It is commonly designed to be spoken and represented by actors on the stage. [ Webster's 1913 Dictionary ]
Well-Made Play: French pièce bien faite
Play constructed according to strict technical principles that produce neatness of plot and theatrical effectiveness.
The form was developed c. 1825 by Eugène Scribe and became dominant on 19th-century European and U.S. stages. It called for complex, artificial plotting, a buildup of suspense, a climactic scene in which all problems are resolved, and a happy ending. Scribe's hundreds of successful plays were imitated all over Europe; other practitioners of the form included playwrights Victorien Sardou, Georges Feydeau, and Arthur Wing Pinero, who brought the form to the level of art with The Second Mrs. Tanqueray (1893). [ Britannica ]
New terms are introduced on "subject pages" in themes directory (new)* Theatre Chronology *
Besides the Six by Aristotle: Structure & Texture (a must)*
Dramatic Arc of the play
>Line-by-line Analysis : Close readings find the beats of the play, as well as line beats.
Character development including:
Play language, is it specialized, or heightened? Evidence of poetic language?
Is it written in meter? Do you see internal or external rhyme?
Logic of the world of the play
What are repeating themes or structures that are particular to the language of the play?
An exercise to look at the logic of the play’s language is to experiment and find connections in the lexicon (word connotation) that connects specialized language of the play.
Themes are the fundamental and often universal ideas explored in a literary work.
Motifs are recurring structures, contrasts, or literary devices that can help to develop and inform the text's major themes.
Symbols are objects, characters, figures, or colors used to represent abstract ideas or concepts.
"Dramatic Question": A device to help clarify analysis. It is the question the play exists to answer. Often phrasing the dramatic question will illuminate the play so the root conflict and root action emerge clearly.
"Cycle of Action": A series of minor conflicts that contribute to the root action and lead to the resolution of the root conflict. Each action cycle is structurally much like the complete play in having an inciting incident, climax, etc.
"Dramatic irony": the words or acts of a character may carry a meaning unperceived by the character but understood by the audience. The irony resides in the contrast between the meaning intended by the speaker and the different significance seen by others.
[ to be updated I hope; for now use other glossaries ]
THR215 DramLit: An introduction to the analysis, preparation and dramatic reading of literature ( new glossary @ dramlit.vtheatre.net *WORK SHEET FOR SCRIPT ANALYSIS I. Given Circumstances A. Environment 1. Geographical location, climate, etc. 2. Date 3. Economic factors 4. Political factors 5. Social/religious factors B. Previous action C. Polar attitudes of characters D. Dialog 1. Choice of words 2. Choice of sentence structures 3. Choice of images 4. Characteristics, i.e, dialect, etc. 5. Prose/poetry II. Dramatic Action A. Root conflict B. Root action C. Dramatic question D. Cycles of action E. Tempo F. Mood G. Climax III. Characters A. Given circumstances (may relate to above) B. History prior to entrance on stage C. Attitudes (will relate to I.c above
School/Movement - Expressionism Dates - Term coined in 1901 Big in Germany in the teens, extended into 20’s in the U.S. Description/Philosophy Inside - Out Finding a visual vocabulary to make internal seen to the audience Takes symbolist motive and manifests its darker side or sociopolitical side Dark reality - mechinization of society reflected on people Interaction of environment and humans, social critique Exploration of experience - show dark side psychologically Society has a point of reference to the outside world, society IS the outside world Characters- types rather than individuals, distorted visuals in productions, usually everything on stage seen from protagonist view/psyche, pessimistic, society is the problem, individual has little hope Founder/Key Influences Strindberg - who can be seen as the “father of all isms” by some Plays & Playwrights Rice -Adding Machine - - the plot is shown in scenes (stations) rather than linear plot development, characters are types Toller - Man and the Masses - - society is the problem and people have little hope Kaiser - From Man to Midnight - - messianic central figure Other Important Names Vincent van Gogh, Willem de Kooning, Edward Munch, Kokoschka For Future Reference Shock of the New - for expressionist art School/Movement - Surrealism Dates - Early 1900’s through 1930’s (plays written up until 1930’s) Description/Philosophy Higher truth coming from within - that is the starting point Interested in internal values/truths The psychological logic of a dream expressed on stage Interested in audience experiencing - engaged in pure thought Founder/Key Influences Apollinaire - 1917 - coined term ‘Surrealism’ Manifesto 1924 - Andre Breton Breton tried to define surrealism - express actual function of thought 1929 - second manifesto Journal - Surrealist Revolution Plays and Playwrights Roger Vitrac, Phillipe Soupault, Charles Baron Apollinaire - Breasts of Tiresias Jaques Cocteau - Soluable Fish, If You Please, You Will Forget Me, Wedding on Eiffel Tower Other Important Names Breton - interested in tapping subconscious - automatic writing - wanted to see if possible to write without conscious brain interfering Dali, Magritte Surrealists embraced Picasso even though he was not a member of their circle For Future Reference The Theatre in Dada and Surrealism - J.H. Matthews Dada and Surrealist Performance - Annabelle Melzer School/Movement - Marxist Theory Dates - 1840’s to the present Description/Philosophy “The liberation of the working class by the elimination of all classes and therefore the unaviodable class struggle of modern capitalism.” “From each according to their ability to each according to their need.” Founder Karl Marx - Philosopher 1818-1883 *(blamed for having invented communism) He is the father of Dialectical Materialism. Influences Hegel - phil., contributed greatly to rebirth of dialectic method. Into dialectical idealism. Dialectic but materialist Feuerbach - phil., Hegel diciple. Into metaphysical materialism Frederick Engels - co-author of the Communist Manifesto Manifesto Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts - Karl Marx 1844 Communist Manifesto - Marx and Engels 1848 Das Capital: Volumes I, II, III - Marx 1867-94 Plays and Playwrights Revolt of the Beavers - Federal Theatre Project 1940’s Measures Taken - Brecht Emile Zola Maurice Myerhold G.B. Shaw Had effect on Boal - takes structure of drama and turns it upside down in order to liberate the audience, creating spect-actors. Other Important Names -- (Inspired by Marx) Chaplin, Orwell, Stravinski, Hemingway, Gandhi, Darwin, Mao, Einstein, Pavlov, Picasso, Faulkner, Lenin, Freud, Tolstoi For Future Reference see glossary of the masses important - idea of surplus value School/Movement - Constructivism Dates - Started in 1913-14 Description/Philosophy One views how everything is made/constructed, the bare bones, nothing decorated on stage Actor = worker, like a gym- everything serves the ‘acrobatics’ of the actors Simplicity, function, no mysteries, art in space, lots of architechtural influences, used poster art with slogans Art for the masses, Art is conscious Founder/Key Influences Vladimir Tatlin (architect) Began in Russia Architectural influences Plays and Playwrights Ostrovsky - The Storm Other Important Names Picasso, rival: Kazimir Malevich, who did the “black canvas” Myerhold - director, de-constructed the classics Witkiewictz - Theatre of Pure Form For Future Reference Look at Russian Theatre School/Movement - Futurism (Italian) Dates - Approximately 1909-1922 Description/Philosophy To create a theatre that is fundamentally nonrepresentational and alogical Experiences for own sake rather than for references, implications Does not tell a story- stays away from character, abolish conventions Anti-realism, speed, power, movement, force, pure abstraction, simultaneous presentation, originality-surprise, mechinization, improv Audience involvement- (selling 2 or 3 tix for same seat in order to create conflict) Assualt conservative older passeists Glorification of war, speed, machine age Founder/Key Influences Filippo Tommaso Marinetti 1876-1944 Reaction against symbolism, realistic theatre, or any theatre of convention Manifesto 13 published - 1st in 1909 Important one - “The Variety Theatre” by Marinetti, 1913 “The Futurist Synthetic Theatre” - 1915 “Theatre of Surprise” - 1921 by Marinetti and Canguillo Plays and Playwrights Poetry readings- evenings of dynamic, synoptic declamation, pro-war connection Short plays - 10 seconds to 40 minutes called Sintesi Marinetti - Le Roi Bombance, Simultaneita, Pouppees Electriques Umberto Boccioni - Bachelor Apartment Emilio Settimelli Bruno Corra Other Important Names Music- Luigi Russlo- created instruments, metalic rubbing sounds, harsh and unnatural Prampolini - designer Piscator - puppets, many innovations in puppetry due to futurists For Future Reference Futurist Performance - Michael Kirby and Victoria NesKirby Pink Floyd - The wall (animation) *Note- Futurists: novelty theatre - to do with movement, power, more of a nonsensical playfulness compared to dadaists confrontational in your face tactics THE MAN - Antonin Artaud Dates 1896-1948 Movements Bureau for Surrealist Research - joined 1925, expelled 1926 Theatre Alfred Jarry in 1926-1929 Theatre of Cruelty - 1932 Description/Philosophy Elimination of spoken words, use of pure sound, gesture, and movement Artaud referred to as ‘father of ritual theatre’- used masks, incantations, rhythmic movement Concentrated on theatre’s ability to promote catharsis and disrupting the audiences rational, western consciousness Insisted theatre be used as language- concerned with developing and utilizing a calculated theatre semiotics *Theories/projects remained largely unrealized during his lifetime Key Influences Andre Breton and ‘The Surrealist Revolution’ Jacque Riviere editor of Nouvelle Revue Francaise, Aurelian-Marie Lugne-Poe director of the symbolist Theatre de l’Oeuvre, and Charles Dullin founder of Theatre de l’Atelier Manifesto/Credo - “to divest the theatre of all logic and verisimilitude; touch and bruise the spectator, thereby forcing involvement” 1st manifesto (of sorts)- Theatre of Cruelty- 1932 - “to make space speak” 2nd manifesto(ditto)- Theatre of Cruelty - 1933 Plays Jet of Blood, Conquest of Mexico, The Cenci Other Important Names - (influenced by Artaud) playwrights - Ionesco, Pinter, Genet directors - Peter Brook, Jertzy Grotowski The Living Theatre - Judith Malina, Julian Beck in New York, (1951- late 60’s) were interested in using physicality, tribal images, and challenging the audience For Future Reference The Theatre and its Double - Artaud Artaud’s Theatre of Cruelty - Albert Bermel Artaud and After - Ronald Hayman Antonin Artaud: Man of Vision - Bettina L. Knapp Antonin Artaud: Selected Writings - Susan Sontag
Specific theatrical elements like light, sound, movement, props and set. theatre theory
Brainstorm 20 points
Outline 20 points
Rough Draft 50 points
Final Draft 60 points
TOTAL: 150 points
Your outline should follow this pattern:
One character (list all the information you have about one character)
The other character (compare to the previous character)
Restate the main idea
2005-2006 Theatre UAF Season: Four Farces + One Funeral & Godot'06
Film-North copyright. eCitations
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